Up until now financial markets have been very sanguine about the coalition talks and arrangements in Italy. I thought it was something of clam before the storm especially as these days something which was a key metric or measure – bond yields – has been given a good dose of morphine by the QE purchases of the European Central Bank. However here is a  tweet from Ferdinando Guigliano  based on information from the Huffington Post which caught everyone’s attention.

1) Five Star and the League expect the to forgive 250 billion euros in Italian bonds bought via quantitative easing, in order to bring down Italy’s debt.

My first thought is that is a bit small as whilst that is a lot of money Italy has a national debt of 2263 billion Euros or 131.8% of its GDP or Gross Domestic Product according to Eurostat. So afterwards it would be some 2213 billion or 117% of GDP which does not seem an enormous difference. Yes it does bring it below the original 120% of GDP target that the Euro area opened its crisis management with but seems hardly likely to be an objective now as frankly that sank without trace. Perhaps they have thoughts for spending that sort of amount and that has driven the number chosen.

Could this happen?

As a matter of mathematics yes because the ECB via the Bank of Italy holds some 368 billion Euros and rising of Italian government bonds and of course rising. However this crosses a monetary policy Rubicon as this would be what is called monetary financing and that is against the rules and as we are regularly told by Mario Draghi the ECB is a “rules based organisation”. Here is Article 123 of the Lisbon Treaty and the emphasis is mine.

Overdraft facilities or any other type of credit facility with the European Central Bank or with the central banks of the Member States (hereinafter referred to as ‘national central banks’) in favour of Union institutions, bodies, offices or agencies, central governments, regional, local or other public authorities, other bodies governed by public law, or public undertakings of Member States shall be prohibited, as shall the purchase directly from them by the European Central Bank or national central banks of debt instruments.

Now we hit what Paul Simon would call “troubled water” as the ECB has of course been very close to the highlighted part. The argument for QE purchases rested on the argument that buying in the secondary market was indirect and not direct or as the ECB puts it.

There will be no primary market purchases under the PSPP, regardless of the type of security, as such purchases are not allowed under Article 123 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

It is a bit unclear as to when they become available but if I recall correctly as an example the Bank of England limit is one week.

The reason for this is to stop a national government issuing debt and the central bank immediately buying it would be a clear example of round-tripping. The immediate implication would be a higher money supply raising domestic inflation dangers  although there would be an initial boost to the economy. We did look at an example of this a couple of years ago in the case of Ghana and whilst we never get a test tube example in economics the Cedi then fell a substantial amount and inflation rose . Thus the two worrying implications are inflation and a currency plunge on a scale to cause an economic crisis.

Would this happen in the case of Italy? That depends on how it plays out. Inside the boundaries of the Euro maybe not to a  great extent initially but as it played out there would be an effect as Italy would not doubt be back for “More,More,More” once Pandora’s Box was open and of course others would want to get their fingers in the cookie jar.

Oh and if we go back to the concept of the ECB being a “rules based organisation” that is something that is until it breaks them as we have learnt over time.

Fiscal Policy

You will not be surprised to learn that they wish to take advantage of the windfall. Back to the tweets of Ferdinando Guigliano

5) The draft agreement would see the Italian government spend 17 billion euros a year on a “citizens’ income”. The European Commission would contribute spending 20% of the European Social Fund

That raises a wry smile as we mull the idea of them trying to get the European Commission to pay for at least some of this. Perhaps they are thinking of the example of Donald Trump and his wall although so far that has been more of a case of a “Mexicant” than a “Mexican.”

Next came this.

According to , the 5 Star/League draft document says there would be a “flat tax”… but with several tax rates and deductions

So flat but not flat well this is Italy! Also we see what has become a more popular refrain in this era of austerity.

Italy’s pension reform would be dismantled: workers would be able to retire when the sum of their retirement age and years of contribution is at least 100.

Over time this would be the most damaging factor as we get a drip feed that builds and builds especially at a time of demographic problems such as an aging population.

So a fiscal relaxation which would require some changes in the rules of the European Union.

The two parties want to re-open European Treaties and to “radically reform” the stability and growth pact. The coalition would also want to reconsider Italy’s contribution to the EU budget.

Market Response

That has since reduced partly because the German bond market has rallied. Partly that is luck but there is an odd factor at play here. You might think that as the likely paymaster of all this Germany would see its bonds hit but the reality is that it is seen as something of a safe haven which outplays the former factor. On that road it issued some two-year debt yesterday with investors paying it around 0.5% per annum. Also I think there is such a shock factor here that it takes a while for the human mind to take it in especially after all the QE anaesthetic.

The Euro has pretty much ignored all of this as I use the rate against the Yen as a benchmark and it has basically gone “m’eh” as has most of the others so far.


There are quite a few factors at play here and no doubt there will be ch-ch-changes along the way. But the rhetoric at least has been raised a notch this morning.

We are in favor of a consultative referendum on the euro. It might be a good idea to have two euros, for two more homogeneous economical regions. One for northern Europe and one for southern Europe. ( Beppe Grillo in Newsweek)

I do not that the BBC and Bloomberg have gone into overdrive with the use of the word “populists” as I mull how you win an election otherwise? If we stick to our economics beat this is plainly a response of sorts to the ongoing economic depression in Italy in the Euro era. Also it was only on Monday when the Italian head of the ECB was asking for supra national fiscal policy. For whom exactly? Now we see Italy pushing for what we might call more fiscal space.

Meanwhile if we look wider we see yet more evidence of an economic slow down in 2018 so far.

Japan GDP suffers first contraction since 2015

Very painful for the Japanese owned Financial Time to print that although just as a reminder Japan is one of the worst at producing preliminary numbers.